AYRSHIRE ROOTS

 

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Search for AYR  or AYRSHIRE in The Scotch-Irish


Source Information: Hanna, Charles A. The Scotch-Irish: The Scot in North Britain, North Ireland, and North America Vol.1 New York, NY: G. P. Putnam, 1902.

Search for all mention of Ayrshire :-  [Ayrshire]


AYR


SCOTLAND OF TO-DAY



 - IT has been said of the modern Scottish race by some of its enthusiastic sons that, in proportion to its numbers, that race has produced more men who have taken a prominent part in the affairs of the English speaking world than has any other. Whether this be true or not, there are two facts bearing upon that phase of Scottish race-history to which attention may properly be called. The first and most important fact is, that nearly all the men of Scottish birth or descent who are renowned in history trace their family origin back to the western Lowlands of Scotland. That is to say, the district comprising the counties of Lanark, Renfrew, Ayr, Dumfries, Wigtown, Kirk-cudbright, and Dumbarton--in area about the same as Connecticut, and the most of which was formerly included in the Celto-British kingdom of Strathclyde,--has produced a very large proportion of the men and families who have made the name of Scotland famous in the world's history.   

 - British of Strathclyde, and English of Bernica--the two latter realms extended far south beyond the line of modern Scotland. This fact had remarkable consequences in Scottish history. Otherwise the existence of these four kingdoms mainly interests us as showing the nature of the races--Pictish, British, Irish, and English--who were, then, the inhabitants of various parts of Scotland, leaving, doubfiess, their strain of blood in the population. A Dumfries, Ayr, Renfrew, Lanark, or Peebles man, as a dweller in Strathclyde, has some chance of remote British (Brython) ancestors in his pedigree; a Selkirk, Roxburgh, Berwick-shire, or Lothian man is probably for the most part of English blood; an Argyleshire man is or may be descended from an Irish Scot or Dalriad; the northern shires are partly Pictish, as also is Galloway, always allowing for the perpetual mixture of races in really historical and in prehistoric times--Andrew Lang, History of Scotland, vol. i., p. 31.  


THE CALEDONIANS, OR PICTS


 
 - on the island for both races; and many bodies of the aborigines no doubt remained unmolested long after the extinction of their race had been in part accomplished.5 As fresh waves of invasion swept over the eastern shores, the Celts first coming would be apt to be driven farther and farther inland from the coast, and would in turn displace the natives--who, to escape death or slavery, would be obliged to push farther westward and northward. Some of these (supposed) aborigines, however, seem to have made a successful stand against the encroachments of the newcomers, and among them we find two tribes who were identified with portions of Scotland down to a date long after the beginning of the historic era. These were the Novantae and Selgovae mentioned by Ptolemy, whose territory in his time (the early part of the second century) embraced the country west of the river Nith and south of the Ayr -- Kirkcudbrightshire and Galloway -- and possibly, also, the peninsula of Kintyre, in Argyle. Toward the end of the Roman occupation they seem to have coalesced, and became known as the Attecotti, a "fierce and warlike tribe," who gave the Romans a great deal of trouble. They afterwards appear in history as the Galloway Picts, and seem to have remained a distinct people under that name down to a comparatively recent date.   

 - A description of the several peoples inhabiting Britain at this time, or shortly after, is found in Ptolemy's Geography, written about A.D. 121. According to Professor Rhys's interpretation of Ptolemy, most of the country between the Humber and Mersey and the Caledonian Forest belonged to a tribe or confederation known as the Brigantes. The Novantae and Selgovae, occupying the district on the Solway west of the Nith, appear, however, to have been independent of them; as were also the Parisi, between the Humber and the Tees. The Otadini (occupying a portion of Lothian and the coast down to the southern Wall) and the northern Damnonii (inhabiting the district north of the Novantae, the Selgovae, and the Otadini, and to a considerable distance beyond the Forth and Clyde--the present counties of Ayr, Renfrew, Lanark, Dumbarton, Stirling, and the western half of Fife) were either distinct peoples subject to the Brigantes, or included in the tribes that went under that named  


THE SCOTS AND PICTS


 
 - When Kenneth mac Alpin became king of the Picts in 844, his territories embraced that part of Scotland now included in the counties of Perth, Fife, Stirling, Dumbarton, and Argyle. North and west of this district the country continued in a state of practical independence for a long time afterward, being in part occupied by the Northern Picts, and in part by the Norsemen. South of Kenneth's territories the Northumbrian Angles occupied the province of Bernicia, which included most of the present counties of Scotland south of the Forth and east of the Avon and Esk. They also maintained lordship over part of the district now known as Galloway and Ayr. The Cymric Britons of Strathclyde lived and ruled where are now the counties of Renfrew, Lanark, Dumfries, Peebles (Clydesdale, Nithsdale, and Annandale); the adjacent portions of Ayr and Galloway and also for a considerable distance to the south of Solway Firth.   

 - "Finally, on the north shore of the Solway Firth, and separated from the Britons by the lower part of the river Nith, and by the mountain range which separates the counties of Kirkcudbright and Wigton from those of Dumfries and Ayr, were a body of Picts, termed by Bede Niduari; and this district, consisting of the two former counties, was known to the Welsh as Galwydel, and to the Irish as Gallgaidel, from which was formed the name Gall-weithia, now Galloway."--Celtic Scotland, vol. i., pp. 237-239. 


THE BRITONS


 
 - but the precise locality is not now known. Dumbarton rock was the main place of strength, and the seat of the reguli. The history of the Alcluyd kingdom presents a series of wars domestic and foreign, throughout the greater portion of its existence--sometimes with the Picts, sometimes with the Scots, oftener with the Saxons, and not less frequently one clan against another. Though repeatedly defeated and overrun, they continued to defend themselves with great spirit; and more than once their restless enemies felt the weight of their sword.--Paterson, History of the County of Ayr, vol. i., p. 13.  
 
 - Cornwall was subsequently occupied by the [Saxon] strangers, and the place of the Britons to the south of present Scotland became limited to what was afterwards known as the principality of Wales. The narrow part of North England, Lancashire and Yorkshire, being occupied by the Saxons there was thus a gap between the Southern Britons and those of Scotland. These latter became a little independent state, known as Strathclyde, endowed with a sort of capital and national fortress at Dumbarton. This country is now known as the shires of Ayr, Renfrew, Lanark, Stirling, and Dumbarton. It had its own small portion in the events of the time through which it existed in independence, and became at last, as we shall see, absorbed in the aggregation that made the kingdom of Scotland. Such was one of the early elements of this aggregation.--Burton, History of Scotland, vol. i., p. 82.  
 
 - The same natural boundary which separated the eastern from the western tribes afterwards divided the kingdom of the Strathclyde Britons from that of the Angles; at a subsequent period, the province of Galweia from that of Lodoneia in their most extended sense; and now separates the counties of Lanark, Ayr, and Dumfries from the Lothians and the   

 - Again, in 875, the same restless enemy, sallying forth from Northumberiand, laid waste Galloway, and a great part of Strathcluyd. Thus harassed by the insatiable Northmen, many of the inhabitants of Alclyd resolved upon emigrating to Wales. Under Constantin, their chief, they accordingly took their departure; but were encountered by the Saxons at Loch-maben, where Constantin was slain. They, however, repulsed their assailants, and forced their way to Wales, where Anarawa, the king, being at the time hard pressed by the Saxons, assigned them a district which they were to acquire and maintain by the sword. In the fulfilment of this condition, they aided the Welsh in the battle of Cymrid, where the Saxons were defeated and driven from the district. The descendants of these Strathcluyd Britons are said to be distinguished from the other inhabitants of Wales at the present day. The Strathcluyd kingdom was, of course, greatly weakened by the departure of so many of the best warriors; and it continued to be oppressed both by the Scots and Anglo-Saxon princes. The judicious selection of a branch of the Scottish line as their sovereign had the effect of securing peace between the two nations for some time. Hostilities, however, at length broke out with great fury, in consequence of Culen--who ascended the Scottish throne in 965 --having dishonored his own relative, a granddaughter of the late King of Strathcluyd. Incensed at the insult, the inhabitants flew to arms, under King Ardach, and marching into Lothian, there encountered the Scots. The battle was a fierce one, and victory declared for the Alcluyden-sians. Both Culen and his brother Eocha were slain. This occurred in 971. The Scottish throne was ascended by Kenneth III. [II.]; and the war between the Scots and Cumbrians continuing, the latter, under Dunwallin--the successor of Ardach--were at length overpowered on the bloody field of Vacornar; where, the Welsh Chronicle states, the victors lost many a warrior. Dunwallin retired to Rome in 975. The Strathcluyd kingdom, now fairly broken up, was annexed to the Scottish crown, and the inhabitants became mixed with the Scots and Picts. This was a successful era for the Scots. Though the country had been overrun by AEthelstan, the Saxons gained no permanent advantage. On the contrary, Eadmund, in 945, ceded Cumberland, in England, to Malcolm I., on condition of unity and aid. Lothian, which had previously been held by England, was also delivered up to Malcolm III., in 1018, after the battle of Carham with Uchtred of Northumberland.--Paterson, History of the County of Ayr, p. 15.


THE NORSE AND GALLOWAY



 - The part of Scotland now known by the name of Galloway embraces the counties of Kirkcudbright and Wigton, which lie west of the lower Nith valley, and south of the range of high hills or mountains that form the southern boundary of Ayr and Dumfries. In earlier times, after its separation from Strathclyde, Galloway probably included Annandale (in Dumfries), the two southern districts of Ayr (Kyle and Carrick), and perhaps also a great part of the northern district of Ayr (Cuninghame) in addition. It thus embraced within its bounds nearly the whole of the southern and western coast of Scotland from the mouth of the Nith to the Clyde.   

 - The only authorities referred to by Chalmers consist of an entire misap-plication of two passages from the Ulster Annals. He says: "In 682 A.D., Cathasao, the son of Maoledun, the Mormaor of the Ulster Cruithne, sailed with his followers from Ireland, and landing on the Firth of Clyde, among the Britons, he was encountered and slain by them near Mauchlin, in Ayr, at a place to which the Irish gave the name of Rathmore, or great fort. In this stronghold Cathasao and his Cruithne had probably attacked the Britons, who certainly repulsed them with decisive success."--Ulster An., sub. an. 682. "In 702 the Ulster Cruithne made another attempt to obtain settlement among the Britons on the Firth of Clyde, but they were again repulsed in the battle of Culin."--Ib., sub. an. 702. The original texts of these passages is as follows: "682. Beltum Rathamoire Maigiline contra Britones ubi ceciderunt Catusach mac Maelduin Ri Cruithne et Ultan filius Dicolla. 702. Bellum Campi Cullinn in Airdo nepotum Necdaig inter Ultu et Britones ubi filius Radgaind cecidit. Ecclesiarum Dei Utait victores erant." Now, both of these battles were fought in Ulster. Rathmore, or great fort of Maigiline, which Chalmers supposed to be Mauchlin, in Ayr, was the chief seat of the Cruithne in Dalaraidhe, or Dalaradia, and is now called Moylinny. See Reeves's Antiquities of Down and Connor, p 70. Airdo nepotum Necdaig, or Arduibh Eachach, was the Barony of Iveagh, also in Dalaradia, in Ulster (Ib., p. 348); and these events were attacks by the Britons upon the Cruith-nigh of Ulster, where the battles were fought, and not attacks by the latter upon the British inhabitants of Ayrshire  
 
 - Mr. Mac Kerlie, in Paterson's History of the County of Ayr (pp. 14, 16), explains the reasons for the similarity between the Gaelic tongue of Galloway and that of Ulster, in this wise:  
 
 - In 740, however, the Alcluydensians of Kyle were invaded by Alpin, king of the Scots, who landed at Ayr with a large body of followers. He is said to have wasted the country between the Ayr and the Doon as far inland as the vicinity of Dalmellington, about sixteen miles from the sea. There he was met by an armed force under the chiefs of the district, and a battle having ensued, Alpin was slain, and his army totally routed. The spot where the king was buried is called at this day Laicht-Alpin, or the Grave of Alpin. Chalmers observes that this fact is important, as showing that the Gaelic language was then the prevailing tongue in Ayrshire. No doubt it is: but it is one of the strongest arguments that could be urged against his theory that the Gaelic was superinduced upon the British, which he holds was the language of the Caledonian Picts, as well as the Romanised tribes. If the Damnonii of Ayrshire spoke Gaelic in 836, they must have done so long before; because at that period, as we have seen, the Scots of Argyle had made no settlement in Ayrshire.   

 - The evidences of a considerable Gaelic admixture in the blood of the early southwestern Scotchmen are also shown in their place-names and surnames. This is particularly the case in Ayrshire, which was the native county of the first emigrants to Antrim and Down in the seventeenth century. To again quote the author of the History of the County of Ayr (vol. i., pp. 9, 16, 17):  
 
 - The main topographical argument of Chalmers in favor of the Scoto-Irish theory, is the circumstance of Inver, in two instances, having been substituted for Aber. Now, as formerly shown, there are only two solitary instances of Inver in the whole topography of Ireland, and not one throughout the range of Galloway. The word, therefore, seems to have been peculiar to the Scottish Gael. In Kyle, on the contrary, we have several samples of it in old charters. Ayr itself is called Inver-ar in some instances, while we have Inverpolcurtecan and Inverdon. Another distinction between the Gaelic, Welsh, and Irish, worthy of being taken notice of, is the patronymic mark. In the Scots it is Mac; in Welsh, Ap; and in Irish, O'. Now, if the Scots had been thoroughly Irish in their descent, as Chalmers affirms they were in their manners, laws, and customs, it is difficult to understand why they should have differed so widely upon so common a point; and it is equally strange that, in the oldest charters, where the Walenses, the remains of the Alcluyd Britons, are distinctly mentioned, there should not occur a single Welsh patronymic mark, if the language of the North Britons and the Welsh were so congenerous as he supposed. If we take, according to Chalmers, the British words in the topography of Scotland as a proof that the inhabitants spoke Welsh, the same rule would apply equally to Ireland, where the same British words are prevalent.   

 - As the death of Alpin occurred in 741, near Dalmellington, on the north banks of the Doon, it may be inferred that Ayrshire was then an integral part of Galloway. Yet, though this was the case, it is well known that there were no sheriffs under the purely Celtic rule of the country, which prevailed until the eleventh century; and from charters of David I. it is evident that in his reign, if not previously, the boundaries of Galloway had been greatly limited.--Paterson, History of the County of Ayr, p. 1.   

 - He crossed from Kintyre to Ayr, and then moved southwards. A great deal of misconception has accompanied his movements. Wyntoun has been implicitly believed, who wrote his Chronicle about 700 years after the event, and has not been considered altogether trustworthy in regard to other matters. And he has rendered it--  
 
 - Kyle, according to Buchanan, was so designated from Coilus, King of the Britons, who was slain and interred in the district. The learned historian informs us that a civil war having ensued between the Britons who occupied the south and west of Scotland, and the Scots and the Picts, who were settled in the north and north-west, the opposing armies met near the banks of the Doon; and that, by a stratagem, Coilus, who had dispatched a portion of his forces northward, was encompassed between the Scots and Picts, and completely routed. He was pursued, overtaken, and slain in a field or moor, in the parish of Tarbolton, which still retains the name of Coilsfield, or Coilus's field. Modern inquirers have regarded this as one of the fables of our early history. Tradition corroborates the fact of some such battle having been fought.--Paterson, History of the County of Ayr, vol. i., p. 2. 

 - but the first would seem to be the proper one. It is the one most general, and as old as the days of Bellenden.--Paterson, History of the County of Ayr, vol. i., p. 4.  


THE ANGLES



The Scots of Dalriada and a part of the British nation, we are told, recovered their freedom, the Angles still maintaining the rule over the rest of the Britons. The portion of their kingdom which became independent consisted of those districts extending from the Firth of Clyde to the Solway, embracing the counties of Dumbarton, Renfrew, Lanark, Ayr, and Dumfries--with the stronghold of Alclyde for its capital; but the Angles still retained possession of the district of Galloway with its Pictish population, and Whithorn as their principal seat, as well as that part of the territory of the Britons which lay between the Solway Firth, and the river Derwent, having as its principal seat the town of Carlisle, which Ecgfrid had, in the same year in which he assailed the Picts, given to Saint Cuthbert, who had been made bishop of Lindisfarne in the previous year, that is in 684.


FROM MALCOLM CANMORE TO KING DAVID



 - "Of the collections of the laws of Scotland, the oldest is one which has been lately restored to this country, from the public library at Berne. It is a fine and careful MS., written about 1270; and, what adds greatly to its interest, containing an English law treatise and English styles, as well as some of the most ancient laws of Scotland, particularly David I.'s venerable code of Burgh laws; and last of all, the ancient laws of the Marches, concerted by a grand assize of the borderers of the two kingdoms in 1249. This singular mixture of the laws of two countries (which might have served as materials for the mysterious fabrication of a so-called Scotch code) excites our curiosity as to the owner of the book; but the only clue we find to guide us is a memorandum scribbled on the last leaf, of an account of sheep taken from John, the shepherd of Malkariston, on Sunday next before the feast of St. Andrew, in the year 1306, when the flock is counted in ewes, dynmouts, and hogs. Next in interest to the Berne MS. is a book of Scotch laws, chiefly Burghal, which was picked up in a book-stall in Ayr in 1824, and its previous history cannot be traced. It is a fine MS., of the age of Robert I., or at least of the early half of the fourteenth century. After that period there is no want of MS. collections of our laws, but all of the character of private and unauthentic compilations.   

 - A considerable influx of Normans took place during the time of David, numbers of them following him out of England when he succeeded to the throne, and many more entering Scotland afterwards at the invitation of this hospitable monarch. Their settlement in the West is thus outlined by the author of the History of the County of Ayr (pp. 18, 19) although it is likely that more than half of those whose names are mentioned were of native Celtic families:  
 
 - The Saxon language, which, as we have seen, was previously spoken in the east of Scotland, and partially in the south, was first introduced at the court, in compliment to the queen, in the region of Malcolm Canmore. Under Edgar, the Saxon mania made still greater strides. Large bodies of emigrants were settled throughout the kingdom, both north and south of the Forth.--Paterson, History of the County of Ayr, vol. i., p. 18.   

 - Besides the Saxons, many of the Norman nobility, who were dissatisfied with the rule of the Conqueror, retired to Scotland, where they were encouraged by every mark of distinction which could be heaped upon them. It seemed to be the policy of the Scottish kings to encourage the settlement of foreigners, with a view to consolidate the authority of the crown, and enable them to overcome the dangerous power of the native clans whose genius and habits were by no means favourable to concentrated government or the cultivation of commerce. --Paterson, History of the County af Ayr, vol. i., p. I8.  
 
 - Normans, Angles, and Scots, and gives the monks the lands of Selkirk and other lands in Teviotdale, a ploughgate in Berwick, and a croft in the burgh of Rexburgh, the tenth of his 'can' or dues from Galweia or Galloway, and in addition some lands in his English lordship of Northampton; and he shows his independent position by adding that this grant was made while Henry was reigning in England and Alexander in Scotia, or Scotland proper. Not long after he refounded the bishopric of Glasgow, to which he appointed John as first bishop, who had been his tutor. The instrument which records the restoration of the diocese, and an investigation ordered by Earl David into the possessions of the see, is still preserved, and may probably be dated some time between the years 1116 and 1120. In this document it was stated that 'in the time of Henry, king of England, while Alexander, king of Scots, was reigning in Scotia, God had sent them David, brother-german of the king of Scotia, to be their prince and leader;' and, 'David, prince of the Cumbrian region, causes inquisition to be made into the possessions of the church of Glasgow in all the provinces of Cumbria which were under his dominion and power, for he did not rule over the whole of the Cure-brian region.' The kingdom of Cumbria originally extended from the Firth of Clyde to the river Derwent, including what was afterwards the dioceses of Glasgow, Galloway, and Carlisle. That portion, however, which extended from the Solway Firth to the river Derwent, and afterwards formed the diocese of Carlisle was wrested from the Scots by William Rufus in 1092, and was bestowed by Henry the First upon the Ranulf de Meschines. David's possessions in Cumbria consisted, therefore, of the counties of Lanark, Ayr, Renfrew, Dumfries, and Peebles, and the inquisition contains lands in these counties. He was, as we have seen, overlord of Galloway, and his rule extended also over Lothian and Teviotdale, in the counties of Berwick, Roxburgh, and Selkirk; for, in a charter by Earl David to the monks of Durham of the lands of Swinton in Berwickshire, he addresses it to Biship John of Glasgow, to Gos-patric, Colban and Robert his brothers, and to his thanes and drengs of Lothian and Teviot-dale; and, in another, Thor of Ednam in Berwickshire calls him his overlord, or the superior of his lands.   

 - "We can trace the settlement of these industrious citizens, during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, in almost every part of Scotland, in Berwick, in St. Andrews, Perth, Dumbarton, Ayr, Peebles, Lanark, Edinburgh, and in the districts of Renfrewshire, Clydesdale, and Annandale, in Fife, in Angus, in Aberdeenshire, and as far north as Inverness and Urquhart."--Tytler, History of Scotland, vol. ii., chap. iii., 4.


WILLIAM THE LION



In 1196 William De Moreville, constable of Scotland, having died, Roland, lord of Galloway, who had married De Moreville's sister, succeeded him. The same year a revolt occurred in Caithness, some of the Norse inhabitants having arisen under the lead of Harald, Earl of Orkney and Caithness. William suppressed the rebellion by marching an army into that district; but the attempt was repeated the following year, when the rebels appeared in arms under the command of Torfin, son of Harald. William again marched to the North, and having seized Harald held him until his son Torfin surrendered himself as a hostage. The same year (1197) William built the castle of Ayr, as a menace to the turbulent Galwegians.


THE SECOND AND THIRD ALEXANDERS TO JOHN BALIOL


 
 - towers that hamlets and towns sprung up; and in less than two centuries a vast change was produced. Ayrshire, notwithstanding the attachment of the inhabitants to their Celtic habits, seems to have made considerable progress in the new order of things, though most of the towns and principal villages are of Celtic origin: for example, Ayr, Irvine, Kilmarnock, Kil-maurs, Mauchline, Ochiltree, Auchinleck, Cumnock, Ballantrae, Girvan, Maybole, &c., no doubt took their rise prior to the Saxon era of our history. Those of more recent times are easily known by the Teutonic affix tun or ton. They are ten in number: Coylton, Dalmel-lington, Galston, Monkton, Richarton, Stevenston, Stewarton, Straiton, Symington, and Tarbolton; and even these are not all wholly Saxon. . 

 - "Though it is thus apparent that the majority of the towns and villages of the county took their rise in Celtic times, and while the Gaelic continued to be the prevailing language, there can be little doubt that the introduction of foreigners, especially the mercantile Flemings, whom the mistaken policy of the English monarchs drove from the south, tended greatly to promote that mercantile prosperity for which the country was distinguished in the reign of Alexander. In ship-building, in fishing, in agriculture, and commerce, Scotland was considerably in advance of England in the twelfth century. The Saxons, Flemings, and other foreigners, are known to have been settled chiefly in the towns; yet, in Ayrshire at least, they seem to have constituted but a small body in comparison with the other inhabitants. The names, so far as they have been preserved in the municipal records of Ayr, for instance, show that Celtic patronymics were by far the most numerous."--Paterson, History of tie County of Ayr, pp., 22, 23.  


WALLACE AND BRUCE



 - During the progress of these operations Edward had been absent in Flanders. Upon his return in the early part of the year 1298, having first vainly summoned the Scottish barons to meet him in a Parliament at York, he assembled an army and marched toward the Border. At this time, as we have seen, Wallace had the active support of but a few of the Scottish noblemen, the great majority being deterred from taking up arms through fear of Edward or by reason of their jealousy of Wallace. Among his followers, however, were John Comyn of Badenoch, Sir John Stewart of Bon-kill, brother to the Steward, Sir John Graham of Abercorn, Macduff, the granduncle of the Earl of Fife, and young Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick. The leader last named guarded the castle of Ayr.   

 - Edward now marched into the West, stopping first to repair Stirling Castle which had been burned by the Scots, and then proceeding into Annan-dale. At his approach, it is said, Bruce burned the castle of Ayr and retired. Edward thereupon seized Bruce's castle of Lochmaben in Dumfries, wherein were confined the hostages given in 1297 as pledges for the loyalty of Galloway.  
 
 - The story, however, is not inconsistent with probability. I cannot say so much for the famous story of the barns of Ayr. It is asserted that Wallace, accompanied by Sir John Graham, Sir John Mentieth, and Alexander Scrymgeour, Constable of Dundee, went into the west of Scotland to chastise the men of Galloway, who had espoused the party of the Comyns and the English; that, on the 28th August, 1298, they set fire to some granaries in the neighhour-hood of Ayr, and burnt the English cantoned in them (A. Blair, p. 5; J. Major, fol. 70). This relation is liable to much suspicion. 1. Sir John Graham could have no share in the enterprise, for he was killed at Falkirk 22d July, I298. 2. Comyn the younger, of Badenoch, was the only man of the name of Comyn who had any interest in Galloway, and he was at that time of Wallace's party. 3. It is not probable that Wallace would have undertaken such an enterprise immediately after the discomfiture at Folkirk. I believe that this story took its rise from the pillaging of the English quarters about the time of the treaty of Irvine in 1297, which, as being an incident of little consequence, I omitted in the course of this history. (See W. Hemingford, t. i., p. 123.)--Hailes, Annals of Scotland, vol. i., p. 280.  
 
 - For some time after that the Earl of Carrick acted a very dubious part. Heming-burgh says that "when he heard of the king's coming [westward, after Falkirk], he fled from his face and burnt the castle of Ayr which he held." But the testimony of both English and Scottish chroniclers is of little value, for it was the object of both, with different motives, to make it appear that Bruce attached himself early to the national cause. There is extant a letter written by Bruce from Turnberry Castle on July 3d, apparently in this year, to Sir John de Langton, Chancellor of England, begging a renewal of the protection to three knights who were with him on the king's service in Galloway. Again, in another document, undated, but apparently written in the late autumn of 1298, Bruce is commanded by King Edward to bring 1000 picked men of Galloway and Carrick to join an expedition about to be made into Scotland. However, as there is some doubt about the date of these papers, Bruce's attitude during 1298 must be held to be uncertain. It is to be noted, however, that when Edward, on returning to England after his victory at Falkirk, made grants of land in Scotland to his followers, Annandale and Carrick, held by the elder and younger Bruce, were not among the lands so disposed of. Nevertheless, the Bruces do not seem to have been in possession of Annandale at this time, for in 1299 Sir Alan FitzWarin defended Loch-maben Castle against the Earl of Carrick from 1st to 25th August. This was the immediate outcome of a notable arrangement come to during that summer, whereby the Earl of Carrick (whom, to avoid confusion, I may hereafter designate by his modern title of Bruce), William de Lamberton, Bishop of St. Andrews, and John Comyn of Badenoch (the "Red Comyn") constituted themselves guardians of Scotland in the name of King John (de Balliol). Bruce, as the principal guardian, was to have custody of the castles, but he appears to have been still wavering, for we hear nothing definite of his movements till after the year 1300.  


SCOTLAND UNDER CHARLES I.



 - At a meeting of the Glasgow Synod, John Lindsay preached, after being warned by some of the women in the congregation that "if he should touch the service book in his sermon, he should be sent out of his pulpit." William Annan, minister of Ayr, in a sermon preached before the same Synod, defended the liturgy. Afterwards, on leaving the church, he was assailed with cries and reproaches; which were repeated whenever he appeared on the streets. Returning one night from the bishop's residence, he was surrounded by some hundreds of persons, most of whom were women, and assailed with neaves, staves, and peats. "They beat him sore," says the old chronicle, "his cloak, ruff, and hat were torn. However, on his cries, and lights set out from many windows he escaped all bloody wounds." At Brechin, the bishop of that district armed himself with pistols, and entering the church with his family and servants, bolted and barred the doors, and read the service to his followers. On coming out, he was set upon by the people, nearly killed by their treatment, and obliged to leave the place and give up his bishopric.  
 
 - parishes and also from a number of the principal burghs, with large numbers of the gentry and commoners from the counties of Fife, Stirling, Lothian, Ayr, and Lanark, arrived in Edinburgh, all resolved to defend the purity and freedom of their national religion. This multitude crowded the streets; when lodging failed they camped at the gates and beneath the walls of the city. They came to petition the king, through his Council, against the service-book and the change in public worship. Their petitions were received, and a promise was given that they should have his Majesty's answer on October 17th.  


THE SCOTTISH PLANTATION OF DOWN AND ANTRIM


 
Hamilton founded the towns of Bangor and Killyleagh, in county Down, and there is no doubt that he did "plant" the land which he had acquired with Scottish tenants, the most of them evidently from the same counties in Scotland -- Ayr, Renfrew, Wigtown, Dumfries, and Kirkcudbright--as the men who followed Montgomery. The names of some of those who held farms from the Hamilton estates in 1681 and 1688 appear on rent-rolls of those years as follows (Hamilton Manuscripts, pp. 108-111, 125-131), the majority of these residing in and near the towns of Bangor and Killyleagh:  


  STEWART'S AND BRERETON'S ACCOUNTS OF THE PLANTATION OF ULSTER



Mr. George Dunbar, who had been once minister in Ayr in Scotland, but being ousted by the bishop came to Ireland, and laboured with great effect. After he was put from Ayr, he was for a time prisoner at Blackness, and in Ireland first preached at Carrickfergus, but having no entertainment there, stayed a while at Ballymena, then came to Larne, or Inver, by whose means all that country heard the Word, and were first gathered unto the Lord.  


CHURCH RULE IN IRELAND AND ITS RESULTS



 - At that time, many of the rectors in the Episcopal Church were laymen. One of these was Lord Claneboy, who was rector of a number of parishes. Being a Presbyterian himself, he made Presbyterians his vicars. To them he gave one-third of the Church revenues of the parishes in which they officiated. This secured to each of them about twenty pounds per annum, which, it is probable, was supplemented by a few pounds yearly from the people. Blair was ordained in the Presbyterian form, Bishop Echlin consenting to officiate as a presbyter. In 1626 Josias Welsh, son of John Welsh, of Ayr, and grandson of John Knox, likewise resigned his professorship at Glasgow, and settled at Templepatrick in Antrim, being ordained by his kinsman Knox, who had succeeded Montgomery as bishop of Raphoe. In 1630 he was followed by John Livingston, minister at Torpichen, who had been "silenced" in 1627 by Archbishop Spottiswoode. Like Blair, he was ordained by a bishop (Knox) who became a "presbyter" for the time being.  
 
 - had been raised for the war in Ireland was seized to carry on war against Charles. The Scottish regiments, therefore, fared very badly, and at times seem to have been driven to live on the country in which they were settled. The campaign of 1643 was not a brilliant one, although ground was recovered. The winter found the troops very discontented; they had received almost no pay since they landed, and when news came of the proposed expedition into England in support of the Parliament, three of the regiments were no longer to be held back, but returned to Scotland against orders. The Ulster settlers were greatly alarmed at the prospect of being left unprotected should the rest of the Scottish troops also go; but fortunately a supply of money and of provisions arrived at Carrickfergus in April, 1644--a portion of the food being a free gift of three thousand bolls of meal from the shire of Ayr. About the same time, too, the Dutch showed their sympathy with the cause of Protestantism in Ireland by making a collection in all the churches of Holland by order of the States-General; they transmitted to Ulster four shiploads of provisions and clothing, which were distributed among both people and soldiery.    

 - The following were the first Calvinistic ministers established in Ulster: Edward Brice, (from Stirlingshire), Broadisland, Antrim, 1613: Robert Cunningham, Holywood, Down, 1615; John Ridge (from England), Antrim, Antrim, 1619; --Hubbard (from England),Carrickfergus, Antrim, 1621; Robert Blair (from Glasgow), Bangor, Down, 1623; James Hamilton (from Ayr), Ballywalter, Down, 1625; Josias Welsh (from Ayr), Templepatrick, Antrim, 1626; Andrew Stewart, Donegore. Antrim, 1627; George Dunbar (from Ayr), Larne, Down, 1628; Henry Colwort (from England), Oldstone, Down, 1629; John Livingston (from Torpichen), Killinchy, Down, 1630; John McClelland, Newton-Ards, Down, 1630; John Semple, Enniskillen in Magheriboy and. Tyrkennedy.


 AYRSHIRE

 

  WHO ARE THE SCOTCH-IRISH?


 
Smith, Moore, Boyd, Johnson, M'Millan, Brown, Bell, Campbell, M'Neill, Crawford, M'Alister, Hunter, Macaulay, Robinson, Wallace, Millar, Kennedy, and Hill. The list has a very Scottish flavor altogether, although it may be noted that the names that are highest on the list are those which are common to both England and Scotland: for it may be taken for granted that the English "Thompson" has swallowed up the Scottish "Thomson," that "Moore" includes the Ayrshire "Muir," and that the Annandale "Johnstones" have been merged by the writer in the English "Johnsons." One other point is very striking--that the great Ulster name of O'Neill is wanting, and also the Antrim "Macdonnel." . . . Another strong proof of the Scottish blood of the Ulstermen may be found by taking the annual reports presented to the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of Ireland, held in June, 1887. Here are the names of the men, lay and clerical, who sign these reports, the names being taken as they occur: J. W. Whigham, Jackson Smith, Hamilton Magee, Thomas Armstrong, William Park, J. M. Rodgers, David Wilson, George Macfarland, Thomas Lyle, W. Rogers, J. B. Wylie, W. Young, E. F. Simpson, Alexander Turnbull, John Malcolm, John H. Orr. Probably the reports of our three Scottish churches taken together could not produce so large an average of Scottish surnames.-- The Scot in Ulster, Edinburgh, 1888, pp. 103-105.


  SCOTLAND OF TO-DAY



In this district are to be found the chief evidences in Scotland of the birth or residence of King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table. Dumbartonshire is the reputed birthplace of St. Patrick, Ireland's teacher and patron saint. Elderslie, in Renfrewshire, is said to have been the birthplace of Scotland's national hero, William Wallace. Robert Bruce also, son of Marjorie, Countess of Carrick and daughter of Nigel or Niall (who was himself the Celtic Earl of Carrick and grandson of Gilbert, son of Fergus, Lord of Galloway), was, according to popular belief, born at his mother's castle of Turnberry, in Ayrshire. The seat of the High Stewards of Scotland, ancestors of the royal family of the Stuarts, was in Renfrewshire. The paternal grandfather of William Ewart Gladstone was born in Lanarkshire. John Knox's father is said to have belonged to the Knox family of Renfrew-shire. Robert Burns was born in Ayrshire. The sect called the "Lollards," who were the earliest Protestant reformers in Scotland, appear first in Scottish history as coming from Kyle in Ayrshire, the same district which afterwards furnished a large part of the leaders and armies of the Reformation. The Covenanters and their armies of the seventeenth century were mainly from the same part of the kingdom. Glasgow, the greatest manufacturing city of Europe, is situated in the heart of this district. 


  THE SCOTS AND PICTS



 - In 733, Eochaidh, King of Dalriada, having died, Selbhac's son, Dungal, regained the throne of that kingdom. During the next year, Dungal having aroused the anger of Angus by an attack upon the latter's son, Brude, the Pictish king invaded Dalriada, and put its ruler to flight. Two years later (in 736), Angus destroyed the Scots' city of Creic, and taking possession of Donad, the capital, he laid waste all Dalriada, put in chains the two sons of Selbhac, and appears to have driven out the fighting men of the two leading clans. One of these, the Cinel Loarn, was then under the chiefship of Muredach, and the other, the Cinel Gabhran, was ruled by that Alpin mac Eachaidh who had been driven from the Pictish throne by Nechtan in 728. Both of these chieftains attempted to free their country from the grasp of the invader by carrying the war into Pictland. Muredach fought the Picts on the banks of the Avon (at Carriber), where he was opposed by Talorgan, brother to Angus, and was completely defeated and routed by that lieutenant. Alpin himself, about 740, likewise invaded Ayrshire, the country of the Galloway Picts, and though he succeeded in "laying waste the lands of the Galwegians," he met his death the following year while in their territories. In the same year in which Alpin was killed (741), Angus is said to have completed the conquest of Dalriada. Its subjection to the Picts must have continued at least during the period of his life.  

 - Simeon of Durham tells us that a battle was fought in 744 between the Picts and the Britons, and in 750, the Picts, under the leadership of Telor-gan, the brother of Angus, met the Britons in a great battle at Magedauc (in Dumbartonshire), in which Telorgan was slain. Eadberht, Anglic king of Northumbria, in 750, added to his Galloway possessions the plain of Kyle (in Ayrshire) and "adjacent regions." He formed an alliance with Angus  

 - Clyde, and comprised all modern Wales, Cheshire, Lancashire, part of Westmoreland, Cumberland, Dumfriesshire, Ayrshire, Lanarkshire, and Renfrewshire, Novantia, however, remained Pictish--i. e., Goidelic--in speech and race. Thus, whatever had been the affinity in earlier centuries between the Selgovae of Dumfriesshire and the Novantae, or Attecotts, of Galloway, it had been replaced in the sixth century by hereditary racial enmity. Galloway was peopled by Attecott Picts; Annandale, Nithsdale, and Strathclyde by Britons, Cymri, or Welshmen .... In the sixth century, then, there were four races contending for what was formerly the Roman province of Valencia--(I) the Britons, Cymri, or Welsh, ancient subjects of Rome, who may be regarded as the legitimate inhabitants; (2) the Northern and .....


THE BRITONS



 - On their departure from Britain in 407 the Roman Government probably calculated on re-establishing their authority at no distant day, and left certain officials of native birth to administer the government, which for a time they had been forced to relinquish. For some time previous to this Britain had been divided into five provinces, of which Valentia, the northernmost, so named by Theodosius in honour of the Emperor Valentinian, was left under the rule of Cunedda or Kenneth, the son of Edarn or Aeternus. Tradition says that his mother was a daughter of Coel Hen, British King of Strathclyde, whose name is preserved in that of the district of Kyle in Ayrshire, and in our nursery rhyme of "Old King Cole." (Coel Hen signifies Old Cole.) Cunedda's official title as ruler of Valentia was Dux Britan-niarum, or Duke of the Britons. He left eight sons, some of whom became, like their father, very powerful and distinguished. From one of these, Melreon, the county of Merioneth is named; from another, Keredig, the county of Cardigan.--Maxwell, History of Dumfries and Galloway, pp. 31, 32. 
 
 - The five Romanized tribes of North Britain continued to occupy their respective districts, and were known in history as the Cumbrians, or Walenses. They remained divided, as formerly, in clanshlps, each independent of the other, and an almost constant civil war was the consequence. They were exposed to repeated inroads from the Scots and Picts; and to the invasion of a still more dangerous enemy--the Saxons--who, in the fifth century, extended. their conquests along the east coast of North Britain, from the Tweed to the Forth; the defeated Otadini and Gadeni falling back among their countrymen, the Damnonii, and other tribes who occupied the Lothians. Seeing the peril by which they were surrounded--he Picts and Scots on the north, and the Saxons on the south--the inhabitants of Ayrshire, Renfrew-shire, Lanarkshire, Dumfriesshire, Liddesdale, Teviotdale, Galloway, and the greater part of Dumbartonshire and Stirlingshire, formed themselves into a distinct kingdom called Alcluyd. The metropolis of the kingdom--Alcluyd--was, no doubt, situated on the banks of the Clyde,


THE NORSE AND GALLOWAY



 - In 740, Alpin (son of Eachaidh by a Pictish mother), who had been successively king of the Northern Picts (726) and king of the Scots (729) and who later was driven out of those kingdoms by Angus, entered Galloway (Ayrshire) with an army and laid its territory waste. In 741 he was defeated by Innrechtach near the Dee, and obliged to retreat to Loch Ryan, where he was assassinated  
 
 - regions to his Galloway domain. These "other regions" are generally supposed to have been portions of the adjacent districts of Cuninghame and Carrick in Ayrshire. They were retained as dependencies until the close of the same century, when by reason of civil feuds at home, and the increasing invasions of the Norsemen from without, the Angles were compelled to withdraw from Galloway and their suzerainty was given up.  

 - The only authorities referred to by Chalmers consist of an entire misap-plication of two passages from the Ulster Annals. He says: "In 682 A.D., Cathasao, the son of Maoledun, the Mormaor of the Ulster Cruithne, sailed with his followers from Ireland, and landing on the Firth of Clyde, among the Britons, he was encountered and slain by them near Mauchlin, in Ayr, at a place to which the Irish gave the name of Rathmore, or great fort. In this stronghold Cathasao and his Cruithne had probably attacked the Britons, who certainly repulsed them with decisive success."--Ulster An., sub. an. 682. "In 702 the Ulster Cruithne made another attempt to obtain settlement among the Britons on the Firth of Clyde, but they were again repulsed in the battle of Culin."--Ib., sub. an. 702. The original texts of these passages is as follows: "682. Beltum Rathamoire Maigiline contra Britones ubi ceciderunt Catusach mac Maelduin Ri Cruithne et Ultan filius Dicolla. 702. Bellum Campi Cullinn in Airdo nepotum Necdaig inter Ultu et Britones ubi filius Radgaind cecidit. Ecclesiarum Dei Utait victores erant." Now, both of these battles were fought in Ulster. Rathmore, or great fort of Maigiline, which Chalmers supposed to be Mauchlin, in Ayr, was the chief seat of the Cruithne in Dalaraidhe, or Dalaradia, and is now called Moylinny. See Reeves's Antiquities of Down and Connor, p 70. Airdo nepotum Necdaig, or Arduibh Eachach, was the Barony of Iveagh, also in Dalaradia, in Ulster (Ib., p. 348); and these events were attacks by the Britons upon the Cruith-nigh of Ulster, where the battles were fought, and not attacks by the latter upon the British inhabitants of Ayrshire 
 
 - In 740, however, the Alcluydensians of Kyle were invaded by Alpin, king of the Scots, who landed at Ayr with a large body of followers. He is said to have wasted the country between the Ayr and the Doon as far inland as the vicinity of Dalmellington, about sixteen miles from the sea. There he was met by an armed force under the chiefs of the district, and a battle having ensued, Alpin was slain, and his army totally routed. The spot where the king was buried is called at this day Laicht-Alpin, or the Grave of Alpin. Chalmers observes that this fact is important, as showing that the Gaelic language was then the prevailing tongue in Ayrshire. No doubt it is: but it is one of the strongest arguments that could be urged against his theory that the Gaelic was superinduced upon the British, which he holds was the language of the Caledonian Picts, as well as the Romanised tribes. If the Damnonii of Ayrshire spoke Gaelic in 836, they must have done so long before; because at that period, as we have seen, the Scots of Argyle had made no settlement in Ayrshire 

 - The evidences of a considerable Gaelic admixture in the blood of the early southwestern Scotchmen are also shown in their place-names and surnames. This is particularly the case in Ayrshire, which was the native county of the first emigrants to Antrim and Down in the seventeenth century. To again quote the author of the History of the County of Ayr (vol. i., pp. 9, 16, 17):  

 - In so far as Ayrshire is concerned, there can be no doubt that the early inhabitants were purely Celtic; whether called Britons, Belgae, Scots, Picts, or Cruithne, they must all have been of Gallic extraction. This is apparent in the topography of the country, the hill-forts, stone-monuments, and Druidi-cal and other remains which have everywhere been found. Even yet, notwithstanding the frequent accessions, in later times, of Saxons, Normans, and Flemings, the bulk of the population retains much of its original features. This appears in the prevailing patronymics, many of which preserve their Celtic prefixes, such as. M'Culloch, M'Creath, M'Crindle, M'Adam, M'Phad-tic, or M'Phedries; or have dropped them like the Alexanders, Andrewses, Kennedies, and Bones, within these few centuries. Campbell is a numerous surname. The Celtic lineaments are perhaps not so strong in Cuninghame, at least in the middle portion of it, as in the other districts; but this is easily accounted for by the early settlements of the De Morville, and other great families from England, in the richest parts of it. In Pont's maps, drawn up at the commencement of the seventeenth century, the Celtic names are more numerous both in Kyle and Cuninghame than in the maps of the present day. The Gaelic language is said [by Buchanan] to have been spoken in some quarters of Ayrshire so late as the sixteenth century.  

 - We thus have Galloway and Ayrshire transformed into an Anglo-Saxon province, as having been fully in their possession. The meanings given of all three are entirely erroneous. Boreland, as Bordland, is to be found as "lands kept by owners in Saxon times for the supply of their own board or table, but it referred specially to the Norsemen, from the Orkneys to Galloway, as lands exempt from skatt, the land-tax, for the upholding of Government. Ingleston has been corrupted by some writers to Englishtoun, the abode of the English, whereas it is also from the Norse and refers to land of a certain character or quality. Under our reference to the Norse occupation of Galloway, we will enter into more particulars in regard to the names Boreland and Engleston. Lastly, Carleton, being from ceorles, is very far-fetched. If it had been from a Saxon source as indicated, the class from whom it is said to have been derived must have been very few (three or four) in number .... Other lands in Wigtonshire, and Borgue parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, got the same designation from descendants who removed there.  

 - Under the alleged Saxon occupation, which is erroneous, we have referred to Boreland, Ingleston, and Carleton, at pp. 87, 88. The first two are from the Norse, and the last from an Irish personal name. The Lothians were for a time in the possession of the Anglo-Saxons (so-called), and yet, after careful investigation, the first is not to be found there, and the second, only once, in West Lothian. We find a Boreland in Peeblesshire, a property so called in Cumnock parish, and Boarland in Dunlop parish, Ayrshire. There are also lands so called in Dumfriesshire, near the mouth of the Nith, which Timothy Pont gives in his survey as North, Mid, and South Bordland. The Borelands in Galloway are so numerous that we must deal with them as one, for there are fourteen farms with the name in the Stewartry, and three in Wigtonshire.  

 - Ayrshire is divided by the rivers Doon and Irvine into three districts-- Carrick, Kyle, and Cunninghame. At what period these three were erected into a sheriffdom is not precisely known. Wyntoun, the venerable aud generally accurate chronicler of Scotland, speaking of the wars of Alpin with the Picts, says:  

 - As the death of Alpin occurred in 741, near Dalmellington, on the north banks of the Doon, it may be inferred that Ayrshire was then an integral part of Galloway. Yet, though this was the case, it is well known that there were no sheriffs under the purely Celtic rule of the country, which prevailed until the eleventh century; and from charters of David I. it is evident that in his reign, if not previously, the boundaries of Galloway had been greatly limited.--Paterson, History of the County of Ayr, p. 1.  

 - "Galloway anciently comprehended not only the country now known by that name, and the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, but also the greatest part, if not the whole, of Ayrshire. It had its own princes and its own laws. It acknowledged, however, a feudatory dependence on Scotland. This dependence served only to supply the sovereign with rude undisciplined soldiers, who added rather to the terror than to the strength of his armies.  

 - The story of the devastation of the district rests on these lines. There is no doubt that he never overran Wigtonshire, nor was even in it. He was only on the borders of present Galloway, and there was slain, not in battle, as is generally supposed, but by an assassin who lay in wait for him at the place, near Loch Ryan, where the small burn separates Ayrshire from Wigtonshire. An upright pillar stone marks the spot, and was called Laicht Alpln, which in the Scoto-Irish means the stone or grave of Alpin.--Galloway, Ancient and Modern, p. 65. 23. Bede, continuation of Chronicle, Anno 750.  

 - These nations had now resumed their normal relation to each other-- east against west --the Picts and Angles again in alliance, and opposed to them the Britons and the Scots. Simeon of Durham tells us that in 744 a battle was fought between the Picts and the Britons, but by the Picts, Simeon usually understands the Picts of Galloway, and this battle seems to have followed the attack upon them by Alpin and his Scots. It was followed by a combined attack upon the Britons of Alclyde by Eadberct of Northumbria, and Angus, king of the Picts. The chronicle annexed to Bede tells us that in 750 Eadberct added the plain of Cyil with other regions to his kingdom. This is evidently Kyle in Ayrshire, and the other regions were probably Carrick and Cuninghame, so that the king of Northumbria added to his possessions of Galloway on the north side of the Solway the whole of Ayrshire.--Celtic Scotland, vol. i., pp. 294-5. 

 - "Under Eadberht the Northumbrian supremacy had reached as far as the district of Kyle in Ayrshire; and the capture of Alclwyd by his allies, the Picts, in 756, seemed to leave the rest of Strathclyde at his mercy. But from that moment the tide had turned; a great defeat shattered Eadberht's hopes; and in the anarchy which followed his reign district after district must have been torn from the weakened grasp of Northumbria, till the cessation of the line of her bishops at Whithern (Badulf, the last bishop of Whithern of the Anglo-Saxon succession whose name is preserved, was consecrated in 791. Sim. Durh. ad. ann.) tells that her frontier had been pushed back almost to Carlisle. But even after the land that remained to her had been in English possession for nearly a century and a half it was still no English land. Its great land-owners were of English blood, and as the Church of Lindisfarne was richly endowed here, its priesthood was probably English too. But the conquered Cumbrians had been left by Ecgfrith on the soil, and in its local names we find few traces of any migration over moors from the east ....


  FROM MALCOLM CANMORE TO KING DAVID



 - Adjoining the Cymric Celts on the west and south were the Attecott Picts of Galloway (probably the descendants of the Stone-Age, non-Celtic aborigines), together with the Gaelic inhabitants of the districts of Cunningham and Kyle, then also in Galloway, but now in Ayrshire. Both of these races were more or less mixed with the Norse; and the Norse likewise occupied the greater part of Caithness and Sutherland, with portions of the western coast, Ross, and Moray. They also doubtless formed a considerable part of the population all along the eastern shore as far south as the Forth--and in the southern districts they may have been largely mixed with the Anglic population from Bernicia.  

 - When David I., who married an English countess who had numerous vassals, ascended the throne in 1124, he is said to have been followed at successive periods, by no fewer than a thousand Anglo-Normans. During the reign of this monarch, Hugh de Morville, amongst others, came to Scotland, and, besides being appointed High Constable, was endowed with vast grants of land. He possessed the greater part of Cuninghame, and, under his auspices, a number of families, who afterwards rose to high feudal distinction, were settled in that district. The Loudoun family, who assumed the name of the lands as their patronymic, were Anglo-Normans. So were the progenitors of the Cuninghames. The Rosses were also vassals of Hugh de Morville. Godfrey de Ros acquired the lands of Stewarton from Richard de Morville. Stephen, the son of Richard, obtained lands in Cuninghame, which he called Stephen's-tun (Stephenston of the present day). The Lock-harts of Lanarkshire and Ayrshire are of Anglo-Norman descent. Simond, the son of Malcolm, who settled in Lanarkshire, held lands under the Stewart family in Kyle, which he called Syming-tun, now Symington. The Colvilles, who possessed Ochiltree for some time, were from England. The Mont-gomeries of Eaglesham, and subsequently of Eglintoun, were Norman, and vassals of Walter the High Steward, who obtained the greater part of Ren-frewshire. A brother of Walter is conjectured, upon good grounds, to have been the ancestor of the Boyds. The Stewarts were themselves Anglo-Nor-mans, as were also the Bruces of Annandale and Carrick. The Wallaces of Kyle are supposed to have been of Norman descent [very improbable], from one Eimerus Galleius, whose name appears as a witness to the charter of the Abbey of Kelso, founded by David I. That the progenitors of the Hero of Scotland came from England is further held to be countenanced by the fact that there existed in London, in the thirteenth century, certain persons of the name of Waleis; but none of our historians or genealogists have been able to trace the slightest family connection between them; neither is it known at what period, if Norman or English, they settled in Scotland. The first of the name on record is Richard Walense, who witnesses a charter to the monks of Paisley, by Walter the High Steward, before the year 1174. The name came to be afterwards softened to Waleys or Wallace. In the absence of direct proof to the contrary, it is not unreasonable to conjecture that the Wallaces were native Scots. Some consider them to have been Welsh, apparently without reference to the fact that the Alcluydensians are often confounded in history by the terms British and Welsh.   

 - There were also the Boyles, Blairs, Dunlops, Fullartons, Hunters, Fair-lies, Linns, Eglintouns, Fergushills, Muirs, Monfoids, Auchinlecks, etc., who rose out of Ayrshire; and the Stewarts, Sempills, Caldwells, Ralstouns, Walkinshaws, Brisbanes, Dennistouns, Porterfields, Lyles, Houstouns, Cath-carts, Pollocks, Whytefuirds, Knoxes, Cochranes, etc., out of Renfrewshire --all of whom were of considerable status. 

 - There was one Alan le Fenwick, connected, no doubt, with the parish in this county. of that name, who swore fealty to Edward I. It is rather surprising that neither the Kennedies, a very extensive and old Celtic clan in Carrick, nor the Boyds, are mentioned amongst the foregoing. Whether Vestiarium Scoticum be a forgery or not, the families enumerated are well known to have flourished in the Lowlands; and, indeed, most of them are in existence at this moment. It is obvious, therefore, that the Celtic population, at least the chiefs, had been superseded to a great extent. In Ayrshire, as already stated, the mass of the inhabitants, were purely Celtic; but, as in other districts, the bulk of the property passed into the hands of Norman and Saxon emigrants, with whose followers the towns and villages were crowded. This infusion of foreign blood was not effected without some difficulty. The Celtic population were greatly opposed to the new system, and they broke out into frequent insurrections. When William was made prisoner at Alnwick in 1174, a general rising took place against the strangers, who were compelled to take shelter in the king's castles. During the reigns of Edgar, Alexander 1., David I., and Malcolm IV., various disturbances occurred in consequence of the prejudices entertained by the old against the new race. The repeated irruptions of the Galwegians, whose territory included not only Carrick but Kyle and Cuninghame, at the commencement of the reign of David I., must of course have involved what now constitutes Ayrshire in the struggle. On the captivity of William, Galloway rose in revolt, slew the English and Normans, expelled the king's officers, and destroyed his castles.


  WILLIAM THE LION



"The extent to which the feudal and Norman element had already been introduced into the south of Scotland, while under the rule of earls, by David, will be apparent when we examine the relation between the Norman barons who witness his charters and the land under his sway. The most prominent of those who witness the foundation charter of Selkirk are four Norman barons, who possessed extensive lordships in the north of England. The first was Hugo de Moreville, and we find him in possession of extensive lands in Lauderdale, Lothian, and Cuningham in Ayrshire. The second was Paganus de Braosa. The third Robertus de Brus, who acquired the extensive district of Annandale in Dumfriesshire; and the fourth Robertus de Umfraville, received grants of Kinnaird and Dunipace in Stirlingshire. Of the other Norman Knights who witness this charter, and also the inquisition, Gavinus Ridel, Berengarius Engaine, Robertus Corbet, and Alanus de Perci possess manors in Teviotdale. Walterus de Lindesaya has extensive possessions in Upper Clydesdale, Mid and East Lothian and in the latter districts Robertus de Burneville is also settled. In Scotland proper the character in which David ruled will be best seen by contrasting his charters with those of his predecessors. Eadgar, who possessed the whole kingdom north of the Tweed and the Solway, addresses his charters to all his faithful men in his kingdom, Scots and Angles. Alexander, who possessed the kingdom north of the Firths of Forth and Clyde alone, to the bishops and earls, and all his faithful men of the kingdom of Scotia. A charter granted by David, in the third year of his accession to the throne, to the monks of Durham, of lands in Lothian, is addressed to all dwelling throughout his kingdom in Scotland and Lothian, Scots and Angles; but when we enter Scotland proper, and compare his foundation charter of Dun-fermline with that of Scone by his predecessor Alexander I., there is a marked contrast between them. Alexander grants his charter to Scone, with the formal assent and concurrence of the seven earls of Scotland; and it is confirmed by the two bishops of the only dioceses which then existed in Scotland proper, with exception of St. Andrews, which was vacant, and the witnesses are the few Saxons who formed his personal attendants, Edward the constable, Alfric the pincerna, and others. King David's charter to Dunfermline, a foundation also within Scotland proper, is granted 'by his royal authority and power, with the assent of his son Henry, and with the formal confirmation of his queen Matilda, and the bishops, earls, and barons of his kingdom, the clergy and people acquiescing.' Here we see the feudal baronage of the kingdom occupying the place of the old constitutional body of the seven earls, while the latter appear only as individually witnessing the charter. David's subsequent charters to Dunfermline show this still more clearly, for they are addressed to the 'bishops, abbots, earls, sheriffs, barons, governors, and officers, and all the good men of the whole land, Norman, English, and Scotch'; in short, the feudal community or 'communitas regni,' consisting of those holding lands of the crown, while the old traditionary earls of the Celtic kingdom appear among the witnessess only."-- Celtic Scotland, vol. i., 458-459.


  THE SECOND AND THIRD ALEXANDERS TO JOHN BALIOL



 - In 1263, the Norwegian king, Haco, built and manned a large fleet at Bergen. Sailing westward to the Orkneys, he levied additional forces there and from his vassals in the Western Isles. Thence sailing south along the western coast of Scotland he entered the Firth of Clyde, and approached the coast of Ayrshire, having with him about 160 vessels. The Norwegians prepared to disembark at Largs in Cuningham, with the intention of invading Scotland. Here, a tempest having arisen and raged for some days, many of the ships were disabled or lost, and the army became disheartened; so that when they were attacked by the Scots of the surrounding country, their resistance was not sufficient to withstand the first onset. They were scattered and fled; such as could make good their retreat returned with Haco to the Orkneys, where that defeated and disappointed sea-king immediately afterwards sickened and died.
 
 
 - towers that hamlets and towns sprung up; and in less than two centuries a vast change was produced. Ayrshire, notwithstanding the attachment of the inhabitants to their Celtic habits, seems to have made considerable progress in the new order of things, though most of the towns and principal villages are of Celtic origin: for example, Ayr, Irvine, Kilmarnock, Kil-maurs, Mauchline, Ochiltree, Auchinleck, Cumnock, Ballantrae, Girvan, Maybole, &c., no doubt took their rise prior to the Saxon era of our history. Those of more recent times are easily known by the Teutonic affix tun or ton. They are ten in number: Coylton, Dalmel-lington, Galston, Monkton, Richarton, Stevenston, Stewarton, Straiton, Symington, and Tarbolton; and even these are not all wholly Saxon. .


  WALLACE AND BRUCE


 
joined the standard of revolt, among them being Robert Wisheart, Bishop of Glasgow; Alexander de Lindesay, the Steward of Scotland and his brother, Sir Richard Lundin, and Robert de Brus (Bruce). The patriots soon had a considerable army gathered, which was posted in the vicinity of Irvine in Ayrshire. Here, Henry de Percy, having marched to the scene of the uprising with a considerable force, found them.


  FROM BRUCE TO FLODDEN



Another view of the character of James IV. is to be found in the first book of John Knox's History of the Reformation in Scotland. This account is doubly interesting from the light it throws on the religious condition of Scotland at that period. From Knox's history, it will be seen that Protestantism in Scotland originated in Ayrshire and the other counties of the west --ever the most enlightened and progressive part of the kingdom. Knox's account is as follows (the italics are his):


  THE BEGINNING OF THE REFORMATION



 - Toward the end of the summer of 1550, Adam Wallace, a man of humble rank from Ayrshire, was accused of heresy, condemned, and burned at Edinburgh. In England the period of persecution under Mary Tudor and Philip of Spain caused many Scotsmen who had formerly fled across the Border to return home. Knox also came back from Geneva in September, 

 
 - of Ayrshire, John Douglas, Paul Methven, and others. In December, 1557, a number of the nobles came out on the side of the Reformation movement, and joined in a bond, known as the First Covenant, by which they agreed to assist each other in advancing the reformation of religion, in "maintaining God's true congregation, and renouncing the congregation of Satan." Among those who subscribed this document were Archibald Campbell, Earl of Argyle, and his son Archibald (Lord Lorne), Alexander Cunningham, Earl of Glencairn, James Douglas, Earl of Morton, and John Erskine of Dun. The leaders of this movement came to be known as "the Lords of the Congregation."
 
 - As a result of the preaching of William Harlaw and others in Edinburgh, some of the young men of that city took the image of St. Giles and threw it into the North Loch. It was afterwards drawn out and burned. This affair made a great sensation. Through the influence of the bishops with the queen regent, four of the chief preachers were cited to appear before the justiciary court at Stirling, on May 10, 1559. The preachers resolved to answer the summons, but first appeared in Edinburgh. With them came their Protestant friends from the West, composed largely of the followers of the Campbells from Argyle and the Cunninghams and Douglases from Ayrshire, Dumfries, and Galloway. At the instigation of a shrewd counsellor in the bishops' party, proclamation was made by the regent that all who had come to town without requisition by the authorities should proceed to the Borders, and there remain fifteen days, to take their tours of frontier duty. The Protestants felt that such a thing was not to be considered, as it would leave their preachers at the mercy of the bishops. Accordingly, some of the leaders made their way into the chamber where the queen regent was sitting in council with her bishops. James Chalmers of Gadgirth, one of the Western barons, a bold and zealous man, stood forth and spoke. "Madam," he said, "we know that this is the malice of the bishops.   
 
 - When the queen regent learned of the riot at Perth, she threatened to destroy the town, "man, woman, and child, to burn it with fire, and salt it in sign of perpetual desolation." The Reformers who were assembled in the town accordingly called upon their friends for assistance. Letters were written to their western brethren in Cuningham and Kyle. These are the two districts of Ayrshire which afterwards furnished so much of the Scottish population of Ulster. The people of Kyle met at the kirk of Craigie, to hear the letters read. Some were faint-hearted, and hesitated. Alexander Cunningham, Earl of Glencairn, standing before the congregation, said, "Let every man serve his conscience. I will, by God's grace, see my brethren in St. Johnstown [Perth]; yea, although never man should accompany me, 


  SCOTLAND UNDER CHARLES II. AND THE BISHOPS



 - In October, 1666, the Council issued a fresh proclamation, which, under severe penalties, required masters to oblige their servants, landlords their tenants, and magistrates the inhabitants of their boroughs to attend regularly the Episcopal churches. Many were thus driven from their homes, their families dispersed, and their estates ruined. In the following November, Mr. Allan of Barscobe, and three other fugitives, who had been forced to seek a hiding-place in the hills of Galloway, ventured from their retreat and came to the Clachan of Dalry to procure some provisions. Here they encountered some soldiers who were about to roast alive an old man whom they had seized because he was unable to pay his church fines. Aided by some of their friends from the village, the Covenanters overpowered the soldiers, and rescued their victim. In the melee one of the soldiers was killed, and another wounded. The Covenanters, realizing that their lives were forfeited in any event, determined to remain in arms, and being joined by MacLellan, Laird of Barscobe, and some other gentlemen of the neighborhood, they soon mustered about fifty horsemen. Proceeding to Dumfries, they surprised and captured Sir James Turner himself. Others of the oppressed people joining them, they marched into Ayrshire. The greater part of the Covenanters, however, were poorly armed. Their most common weapon was a scythe set straight on a stave. With Colonel Wallace at their head the insurgents marched against Edinburgh, nine hundred strong. General Dalziel...........
 
 - The Rev. James Renwick, a young man of five-and-twenty, minister of the persecuted Cameronian societies, had preached with great power against those who took advantage of the Indulgence. But his career was short; for, on the 17th of February, 1688, having been apprehended, he suffered the penalty of death. Renwick was the last of the Scottish martyrs. David Houston came very near to obtaining that honor. Arrested in Ireland, he was brought to Scotland to be tried. On the 18th of June, near Cumnock, in Ayrshire, his military escort was attacked and defeated by a body of Covenanters. Mr. Houston was released, and evaded recapture until King James was driven from his throne.


 THE SCOTTISH PLANTATION OF DOWN AND ANTRIM



 - In this extremity, Con's wife communicated with a friend in Scotland, one Hugh Montgomery, who was the Laird of Braidstone, in Ayrshire. He had been looking for an eligible "settlement" in the north of Ireland, and kept himself posted as to what went on there through relatives who traded to Ireland from the port of Irvine. In consideration of the cession to himself of one-half of Con's lands in county Down, he now agreed with the latter's wife to assist the prisoner to escape, and entrusted the carrying out of the enterprise to his relative, Thomas Montgomery, who was the owner of a sloop which sometimes traded with Carrickfergus. The latter accordingly....... 

 - Both Hamilton and Montgomery, as soon as their patents were passed by the Irish Council, crossed into Scotland to call upon their whole kith and kin to aid them in the plantation of their vast estates. Both were Ayrshire men, from the northern division of the county. Hamilton was of the family of Hamilton of Dunlop, while Montgomery was of the great Ayrshire family of that name, sprung from a collateral branch of the noble house of Eglinton, and sixth Laird of Braidstone, near Beith. The king had granted Con's land to Hamilton on the express condition that he should "plant" it with Scottish and English colonists. Hamilton seems to have received the hearty support of his own family, for four of his five brothers aided his enterprise and shared his prosperity. From them are descended numerous families in Ulster, and at least two Irish noble families. 

 - In the Montgomery Manuscripts is preserved a careful account of how Hugh Montgomery "planted" his estate, the country around Newtown and Donaghadee, known as the "Great Ards." Montgomery belonged to a family having numerous connections throughout North Ayrshire and Ren-frewshire, and to them he turned for assistance. His principal supporters were his kinsman, Thomas Montgomery, who had done the successful wooing at Carrickfergus; his brother-in-law, John Shaw, younger son of the Laird of Wester Greenock; and Colonel David Boyd, of the noble house of Kilmar-nock. With their help, Montgomery seems to have persuaded many others of high and low degree to try their fortunes with him in Ireland.

      
  THE GREAT PLANTATION OF ULSTER



 - James seems to have seen that the parts of Scotland nearest Ireland, and which had most intercourse with it, were most likely to yield proper colonists. He resolved, therefore, to enlist the assistance of the great families of the southwest, trusting that their feudal power would enable them to bring with them bodies of colonists. Thus grants were made to the duke of Lennox, who bad great power in Dumbartonshire; to the earl of Abercorn and his brothers, who represented the power of the Hamiltons in Renfrewshire. North Ayrshire had been already largely drawn on by Hamilton and Montgomery, but one of the sons of Lord Kilmarnock, Sir Thomas Boyd, received a grant; while from South Ayrshire came the Cunninghams and Crawfords, and Lord Ochiltree and his son; the latter were known in Galloway as well as in the county from which their title was derived. But it was on Galloway men that the greatest grants were bestowed. Almost all the great houses of the times are represented,--Sir Robert Maclellan, Laird Bomby as he is called, who afterwards became Lord Kirkcudbright, and whose great castle stands to this day; John Murray of Broughton, one of the secretaries of state; Vans of Barnbarroch; Sir Patrick MeKie of Laerg; Dunbar of Mochrum; one of the Stewarts of Garlies, from whom Newtown-Stewart in Tyrone takes its name. Some of these failed to implement their bargains, but the best of the undertakers proved to be men like the earl of Abercorn and his brothers, and the Stewarts of Ochiltree and Garlies; for while their straitened means led them to seek fortune in Ireland, their social position enabled them without difficulty to draw good colonists from their own districts, and so fulfil the terms of the "plantation" contract, which bound them to "plant" their holdings with tenants. With the recipient of two thousand acres, tbe agreement was that he was to bring "forty-eight able men of the age of eighteen or upwards, being born in England or the inward parts of Scotland." He was further bound to grant farms to his tenants, the sizes of these being specified, and it being particularly required that these should be "feus" or on lease for twenty-one years or for life. A stock of muskets and hand weapons to arm himself and his tenants was to be provided. The term used, "the inward parts of Scotland," refers to the old invasions of Ulster by the men of the Western Islands. No more of these Celts were wanted; there were plenty of that race already in North Antrim; it was the Lowland Scots, who were peace-loving and Protestants, whom the Government desired. The phrase, "the inward parts of Scotland," occurs again and again. 

 - The north of Ireland is now very much what the first half of the seventeenth century made it. North Down and Antrim, with the great town of Belfast, are English and Scottish now as they then became, and desire to remain united with the countries from which their people sprang. South Down, on the other hand, was not "planted," and it is Roman Catholic and Nationalist. Londonderry county too is Loyalist, for emigrants poured into it through Colernine and Londonderry city. Northern Armagh was peopled with English and Scottish emigrants, who crowded into it from Antrim and Down, and it desires union with the other island. Tyrone county is all strongly Unionist, but it is the country around Strabane, which the Hamiltons of Abercorn and the Stewarts of Garlies so thoroughly colonized, and the eastern portion, on the borders of Lough Neagh, around the colonies founded by Lord Ochiltree, that give to the Unionists a majority; while in eastern Donegal, which the Cunninghams and the Stewarts "settled" from Ayrshire and Galloway, and in Fermanagh, where dwell the descendants of the Englishmen who fought so nobly in 1689, there is a great minority which struggles against separation from England. Over the rest, even of Ulster, the desire for a separate kingdom of Ireland is the dream of the people still, as it was three centuries ago. In many parts of Ireland which were at one time and another colonized with English,  


  THE ULSTER PLANTATION FROM 1610 TO 1630



 - COUNTY OF TYRONE: PRECINCT OF MOUNTJOY--95OO ACRES1.3000 acres to Andrew Stewart, Lord Ochiltree, Galloway.2.1000 acres to Robert Stewart, gent.,of Hilton, Edinburgh. Transferredto Andrew Stewart, Jr., before 1620.3.1500 acres to Sir Robert Hepburne, Knt., of Alderston, Haddington-shire.4.1000 acres to George Crayford [or Crawford], Laird of Lochnories, Ayrshire. Transferred to Alexander Sanderson before 1620. 

 - 1000 acres to Robert Stewart of Robertown, Ayrshire. Transferred toAndrew Stewart, Jr.  

 - l000 acres to Sir Walter Stewart, Knt., Laird of Minto, Roxburghshire. Transferred before 1620 to Sir John Colquhoun, Laird of Luss, Dumbartonshire. 3. 1000 acres to Alexander McAula of Durlin, gent., Dumbartonshire. 4. 1000 acres to John Cuningham of Crafield [or Crawfield], Ayrshire. 5. 1000 acres to William Stewart, Laird of Dunduff, Maybole, Ayrshire. 6. 2000 acres to James Cuningham, Laird of Glangarnocke, Ayrshire.
 
 - 1000 acres to Cuthbert Cuningham of Glangarnocke, Ayrshire.  

 - 1000 acres to James Cuningham, Esq., of Glangarnocke, Ayrshire.

 

 

 
 

 

 
 

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