Letters and papers of the Anderson & Gilmour Families
Contributed by Bruce P. Shields firstname.lastname@example.org
A Foreword to the language & contents of the papers
The period of these papers spans a time from the 1730's to the 1770's. They show the complainants appearing in court in Auchinleck before Alexander Boswell, and in the Barony Court of Lord Loudoun. Alexander Boswell was a Lord Justice of Scotland, roughly comparable to a U.S. supreme court justice, and father to James Boswell the biographer of Samuel Johnson. The Loudoun estates were the origination of the majority of the Scots settlers of the East Hill/ Andersonville section of Glover, Greensboro, and Craftsbury.
The language of these legal documents is extremely difficult. The handwriting is a cursive "chancery" hand, making use in at least two cases of frequent abbreviations. To compound the difficulty, some Scots words are used, and some terms from Law Latin and Law French. Many of the Scots words are used in very rare specialized sense. I do not have access to Prof. A. J. Aitkin's Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue, nor to the "Manual d'Abbreviazione" which may have allowed some of these terms to be accurately represented. I believe that the expansion or transcription which I have provided represents the concept developed in the text, even if I may have missed a significant use of a rare term.
Just a word on the Scots language used in the legal papers: Scots grammar differs somewhat from our modern standard English - the most obvious point being use of an "s" ending on a verb to agree with the singular personal pronoun, e.g. "I finds... ." There are many lexical differences. For instance, the legal papers use "alanarly" [=English 'all only] where we expect "exclusively"; "anent" for "pertaining to"; "stent" for a particularly assessed property tax. Where English uses the particles "a," "an," or the numeral "one," Scots uses "ane." These elements, which connect Scots with Scandinavian languages, fell into disuse gradually after the Act of Union. I have not attempted to footnote the language.
The other group of documents connects to the Garvin Anderson family, preserved by Garvin's daughter Isabelle, who married into the Wylie family. This connection brought these papers into the Rodgers family. Two letters are preserved from George and Mary Borland to Mary's parents, James and Isabelle Anderson. Other letters were written from Scotland to the elder Andersons, and there are miscellaneous papers related to Anderson business dealings in America. This small collection of letters is valuable for background on the Anderson emigration.
3. Discharge dated
1755. Henry Richmond and another party here pay interest on a loan of 1100 Merks extended originally to
John Lindsay & deceased son William. Since the Lindsays figure in later Richmond filings, but have no representative at this payment of a loan they owe, this appears to be another Richmond move against them.
17. Letter: John MacKenzie
James Anderson, Sr. at West Glover, VT. From an old family friend living south of
Kilmarnock, with much neighborhood news of
Mauchline area. Describes his son
John's lumber rafting in Ontario &
Quebec, and recounts from James's letter how the Anderson men
tried to meet John at a tavern along the coach route from Burlington,
VT, to Quebec
a) Bliss Affadavit ~1850. Addressed to Mr. Boardman, states that Deacon Bliss wrote for an uncle of James, jr. [possibly Garvin], a note for sugar equipment in 1843, providing for 2 equal annual payments, first in maple sugar, second in cash. Agreement had been made for no interest, but Bliss altered the notes at a later date by inserting the words "interest." The victim chose not to publicize this episode until after Bliss's wife had died.
b) Bill of sale: for sap equipment 1872. Not apparently related to a); Enock Rowell is one of the parties to the sale. Of interest for prices.
c) H. M'Lellan [or H.M. Lellan] receipt, probably from Scotland,
1846. Subject of the tally and reckoning not clear, probably cloth.
And hereby binds and obliges him to teach and instruct the said David Brunton in his haill airt and trade of shoemakeing and corduinarie faithfully and honestly as use is in the lyke cases. And that he shall conceal no parts nor practique of his said trade and airt from from his said apprentice during the haill space tyme and number of years underwritten. And to furnish him in all tools and materials for workeing except auls and knives which the said David Brunton is to furnish upon his own proper charges. And to furnish his said apprentice in bed and board during his apprenticeship and washing of lineings after the said Mungo Miller's marryage allonnarly if the samen shall happen during his apprenticeship. And to allow the said David Brunton five weeks each Harvest to himselfe; as also each Saturday's afternoon to worke for his own use and behoof during his apprenticeship, and to give his said apprentice two pair of shoes to himself sometyme during the three years service for which he is to pay no pryce.
And the said Mungo Miller as principal and Alan Miller portioner in Machline his Father as covenander for him binde and oblige them covenante and sealle their heirs, Successors and Intro[mi]tters with their goods and giers whatsomever to performe the hail promisses to his said apprentice in the haill heads clauses and articles of the samen; and to warrend thir Indenturs upon their parte att all hands and ag[ains]t all deidly as law will to be good valid and sufficient.
For the which cause upon the other part, the said
David Brunton as principal will consent and accord of John Cumminghame
weaver in Machline as takeing burden upon him for the said
David Brunton. And the said John Cunninghame for himselfe as Covenantor sueritie and full debitar with and for the said
David Brunton, and they both with ane consent and accord hereby bind and oblige them Covenante and Sealle their heirs, Assigns, Successors and Intrometters with their goods and giers whatsomever, the the said
David Brunton shall instantly and at the date hereof enter to his service as apprentice to the said Mungo Miller in airt and trade of Corduinarie and shoemakeing and from hence shall serve him as such faithfully honestly constantly and truly for the haill space tyme and number of three years expyring the
Eight Day of December One Thousand Seven Hundred and thretty eight
years, and that he shall not absent himself from his said masters warke during the said space (except the five weeks in Harvest and the Saturdays afternoons allowed him as above) without liberty asked and given under the pain of haveing his days [extended?] after the expiration of thir indentors for ilke days absense, and that he shall not disobey his said master's lawfull commands nor let his bidding by night or by day during his said Apprenticeship, and that he shall not conceal nor be auditory to anything which may hurt prejudge or endamage his said master any manner of way whatsomever; But shall faithfully
And further the said David Brunton as principal and the said John Cunnignhame as Covenander foresaid hereby binde and oblige them and their foresaid Covenanders and Sealers to pay to the said Mungo miller his master the just sum of fforty shillings Sterl[ing] money, his heirs, successors or assigns. Allow the ten shillings sterling already payd at makeing thir Indenteirs, And whereof the Said Mongo Miller hereby grants the receipt and discharges the said David Brunton and his said Covenantor of the samen; in name of Apprentice fie at the terms followeing viz. ten shillings sterling thereof at the terme of Candlesmass next to come Seventeen Hundred and thretty six years, and five shilling sterling more thereof at the terme of Martinmass immediatly followeing thereafter, and twenty five shillings sterling thereof as the last moyety and in compleat and full satisfaction of the above sum of fforty shilling sterling at the terme of Martimass, Seventeen Hundred and thretty eight years butt longer delay with ane fifth part more proportionally to the required sums payable at the required terms current of liquid at penalty and expensses in case of failzie of ilke termes grayth together.
Also with the due and ordinary current of the foresaid principall sum of fforty shillings sterling from and after the required terms of payment underwritten proportionately during the not payd thereof. And ffurther the said
David Brunton and his said Covenantor oblige them covenante & sealle to furnish and offer to the said
Mungo Miller ane pair of blankets or forty shillings Scotts as the pryce thereof in name of bed cloaths to the said
David Brunton to lye in ; As also ane women's apron to be disposed upon by the said
Mungo Miller at pleasure.
There appears in witness whereof Warrend upon stamped paper conforme to law by
Mr. William Mitchell in Machline, both parties both principals and covenanters have suscribit their perusal and considering of this second and the preceeding first page upon the back the same day moneth and year underwritten before these witnesses,
William Adam maltman in Machline,
James Murdoch shoemaker there, and the said Mr. W'm Mitchell wryter hereof, witness also to the marginal note upon this page:
2. CAPTION on outer fold:
Discharge. William Adam to Paterson & others 1743
I Grant Agnes Colville, Agnes Paterson, and John Lindsay
for themselves or as representing the said defunct by bonds bills decrets accounts the pryce of malt and beer or by any other manner of way wherewith I can charge them or any of them for whatever cause or occasion bygone preceding the date hereof, the said wrytes and diligences themselves and all that has or may fall this year forever, and I dispence with [obligation? - badly torn] hereof and admit and declare these persons to be also and [1 1/2 inch tear] to all intents and purposes as if every particular of the promises gone by , and discharged were herein specially insert which discharge and wryte I bond and oblige me, my heirs and executors, to warrant to be good valid and suffisant to the said
Agnes Colville, Agnes Paterson & John Lindsay and the foresaid and others aforesaid at all hands and against all deadly as Law wills, Consenting to the registration hereof in the books of Council, Session, or in any other Judges' books competent for preservation and Constituting my goods, &c:
Petition of David Brunton 1751 - Headline of Docket identifier.
Single sheet, watermarked, 7” x 12”
4th May 1751 Unto Mungo Campbell of Netherplace, one of his Majesty’s Justices of the peace for the Shire of Air: The Petition and Complaint of David Brunton shoemaker in Machline, and David Gilmore in Sandfoord in the paroch of St. Gibbocks with Concurrance of Robert Wear, wright in Machline as baillie to the roup after mentioned.
That upon the
seventeenth day of March last, Margaret Lambie, mother of your
petitioner, David Brunton, and Mother in Law to the other petitioner, David
Gilmore, Died possest of some small movable subject in Machline;
And your petitioner, being willing that her just and Lawfull Debts should all be
paid , did apply to your Honour for a Warrand to Roup her effects which you was
pleased to Grant upon the 26th Day of the said moneth of March for paying
sickbed & funeral Charges.
accordingly upon the Day following, being the 27th we Called a Roup and in
Course thereof John Ronald smith in Machline
bought a pair of blankets for which he was to pay three Shillings and three
pence Ster[ling] therefore. As also
Janet Brunton Spuse to James Wilson, shoemaker in Machline
bought at the said Roup a parcell of Goods Consisting of Blankets, Pouther &
baby Cloaths &c. amounting to about twenty shillings Sterling money or share
by, as by the Articles of Roup will appear.
All which the said John Ronald & James Wilson Refuses to pay
unless they be compelled.
May it therefore please your Honour to grant warrand to the Constables of
this Shire to Summond the said Def[ault]ers to Compear before you and Alex[ande]r
Boswell of Auchenlect
at the place of Auchenlect
this day between the hour of Eleven & two afternoon to answer to the above
Complaint and your petitioners shall ever pray, Robert Wear, David Burton,
Netherplace 4th May,
1751. Having considered the
above petition finds the ground yr[=there]of reasonable and grants warrand as
4th May, 1751. Grants
Warrend to Constable to Summand the within Designed John Ronald & Ja’s
Wilson to Compear at the place and to the &cet within mentioned.
[in light brown ink] Upon the 4ourt day of May 1700 and fiftyone years I John Peden, Constable, past at Creavend [?] of the within warrand raised at the instance of the within designed David Burton and and the instance of David Gilmer and at the instance of the within designed Robert Weir and by virtue of lawfuly summoned warned and charged the also within designed James Wilson and Janet Burton spouses and John Ronald smith all in Mauchline, to compear befor said mentioned Justices of the peace of the shire of Ayr at Auchenlik time and place within mentioned in the hearing? of cause to answer at the instance of the within Designed David Burton and David Gilmour - and at the instance of Robert Wear to the within Complaint and made certificate as eppears @ his instance by delivering to each of the within named persons, viz. James Wilson and Janet Burten and John Ronald -- [the following is very hastily written, the ink is faded, and some abbreviations are used] -- are inst[ructed to?] appear of the within Complaint prefixt thereto sub’tt tyme personally apprehended w’t Certif’’ --- John Peden, &&.
Account of Death Bed & funeral charges belonging to the
Deceast Margret Lambie 1751. [Docket label]
In faded brown ink, clear hand, on 7” x 12” paper w/ watermark.
An Accompt of Charges
expended upon account of Margret Lambie spouse to David Burton,
Meason, in Mauchline, her Deathbed and funeral Charges, Viz:
received by David Burton her son and James Wilson
Robert Weir, for a Coffin, as Wittnes
To Robert Wilson, for two gallons ale, as Wittnes
To Robert Hutcheson, for six pints ale, as wittnes
William Gibb, Merchant, Junior in
Mauchline, for sundries as
Wheat Bread 4 farls [a
type of scone]
oring water, one pint, used at straighting the Corps
Bread, 2 dozen & four farls
oring water, 1 pint
Aquavita 2 pints 8 gills as Witnes
To William Gibb, Senior, Me’t for a mort cloth
nillen pins and Soap, as Wittnes
“ “ To Chees 9 1/2 pound at 42d per ston out of Auchenbrain 1 00 09
To William Gibb, Bedal for grave & turf, as witnes
To Robert Gibb for Inviting the poeple, as witnes
To James Lambie for 3 pecks meal, as Wittnes
To James Blackwood for Linnin 4 1/2 ell, as witnes
for charges on Sick Bed:
To William Gibb Junior for wine and spirits as witness
To Robert Miller for ale and Brandy as wittnes
To James Smith one gill of Sack as witnes
To Doctor John Thomson as wittnes
To James Lambie, one peck of meal as wittnes
To Janet Morton, for serving, as wittnes
To House rent as wittnes
£ 7 02
above Sick bed Charges is what was got while in her own hous
Of Sick bed and funerall charges Amounting to
Wilson refuses to sign the petition and to give up ane separate account of what
charges he has been at, before wittnesses.
1/6 of sheet, being 7 1/2”
wide by 4” high. [Possibly a part
has been ripped off the top, as the writing begins very near the edge, and there
is no caption.]
Upon the nineteen day of June I
George Gibson Constable post by virtue of a decreet obtained at the instance of
Mr. James Conial Minister of the Gospell at
before the justices of the
the house of auchenleck
against David Brunton shoemaker in
and in manse and outhardy therof contained--
Lawfully Comands warns and
Charges you David Bronton to mack payment to the Compter of the Purse of three
Shillings and twopence Starling as the price of ane year kepend of
and ane shilling and sixpence Starling of Expences of plea Conformand to
said decreet and that within the space of fifteen days next after this my Charge
and on the pain of poinding which Copie of Charge I deliver to you ---
Conformed to said Decreet in
all parts before these witnesses with Certification - George Gibson.
[Similar - docket endorsement]
Charge for David Brunton 1764
same paper as above, but
Upon the first day of Sept’r
Inuzlx [this abbreviates One Thousand Seven Hundred] and sixty four years, I,
George Gibson Sheriff open post by vertue of the Sheriff depute of Ayr his
decreet Rec[eive]d at the Instance of Hendrey Richmond merchant in Mauchline of
date the thertyeth day of Agust Inuzlx [One Thousand Seven Hundred] and sixty
four yers against David Bronton Shoemaker in mauchline and in His majiesties
name and authority I said Sheriff lawfully command and Charge you the said David
Brounton to make payment to the Compliner of the sume of tuo houndred and ninety
four pound Scots as the Rent of your poseseoun since the date of your
despesesioun dedusing all partshill payments whatsomeever all contained in and
conformed to said decreet and that within the space of fifteen days next after
this my Charge under the pain of poinding and this I did and mead Certifactioun
by delivering to the said David Brountoun ane just Coppee of Charged by me
before this Wittness --- George Gibson.
Printed Receipt about 6” x
2” high, with blanks. The
handwritten words in italic below.
One thousand seven hundred and Fifty
Received from James Smith
One pound and Seventeen Shilling
as the Cess
payable in June and Septem’r [abbreviation
resembling ‘passpass’] for
Article of Paterson’s
the Parish of
McDer[mott? the latter part
of name is ornamental]
Tattered paper, headlined: Memorial
for Agnes Paterson and David Brunton, her son in law.
This apparently is extract from the book of a court of Session. Second
sheet with docket notation: Memorial for Agnes Paterson & David
Brunton her Son in Law 1762.
Elizabeth paterson and the said Agnes, Daughters to the
deceast William Paterson in Town
Head of Mauchline procure
from the Earle of Loudoun a Precept of Clare Constat for infeffing them
as Grand Children and nearest heirs portioners of the deceast W’m Paterson
in Town head of Mauchline
their Grand Father in the
Twenty penny land of Old Extent of Mauchline with
housis, bigings, yeards adjacent to the same, lying in the villidge and
Territorry of Mauchline,
between the Lands somtime of John Fisher nevu of Mungo Campbell of
and the Lands pertaining to the said Earle then possesst by James Hamilton
on the South, the tenements and now of the said Mungo Campbell & James
Richmond, and the High
Street of the town of Mauchline
leading to Sorn
upon the West and North parts and also upon the East as then posseset by Agnes
Colvine Relict of said William Paterson Jr and the said Agnes
Paterson & John Lindsay smith in Mauchline
her husband lying within the
ten pound land of the Mains of Mauchline.
Elisabeth and Agnes Paterson are infeft on the said Precept and
their Infeffment Registrate at Ayr
the thirteenth of that month. It is
informed that Elizabeth Paterson disponed her half of the said Twenty
penny Land to said Agnes
Paterson & John Lindsay
her husband who afterwards conveyed the same to W’m Lindsay their son
deceast, who hath a Daughter alive.
Agnes Paterson her said husband for Love & favour to their
daughter Ann & David Brunton her husband disponed to the said Ann
& David Brunton [hole]
Interest their heirs &c the said Agnes Paterson her just and equall
half of the said Twenty
penny Land in Mauchline --.
The said Agnes Paterson & David Brunton and others possession
of the whole Twenty penny land
are pursued at the instance of Henry Ritchmond, merch[an]t in Mauchline
for the Rents of the said Lands on the Titles following, viz:
Heretable Bond by said Agnes Paterson & John Lindsay her
husband to John Richmond, son to James Ritchmond in Auchenbrain,
for five hundred Merks Scots price with @ rent and penalty bearing Infeffment on
the said Twentypenny Land for
security of the Sums in the Bond, and redeemable on pay[men]t thereof.
John Ritchmond was Infeft on the heretable Bond and the Infeftment
Registrate 23d May that year.
Said Agnes Paterson & John Lindsay and W’m Lindsay
Shoemaker in Mauchline,
their oldest son, Grant Heretable Bond of Corroboration to the said John
Ritchmond of the said Heretable Bond extending with Six hundred Merks then
lent to Eleven hundred and Twenty Five Merks, and which contains infeftment for
that sum with the @ rent and penalties in the said Twentypenny
John Ritchmond is Infeft on the said Bond of Corroboration, and
the Infeftment Registrate 16th July thereafter.
16th & Nov 12}
The Earle of Loudoun’s Commissioners grant a Charter of
Confirmation of the said two heretable Bonds and Infeftments thereon and Precept
of Clare Constat for Infefting Ja[me]s Ritchmond son to the said John
Ritchmond as heir to his father in the said Twenty
penny Land for security of
the foresaid sum;
James Ritchmond is Infeft thereon and his infeftment Registrate
24th said month.
Said James Ritchmond Conveys to said Henry Ritchmond the
Said Twenty penny land
for security of the foresaid sums.
Agnes Paterson & John Lindsay grant heretable Bond to said Henry
Ritchmond for Seventeen pounds Sterling of principal with @ rent and penalty
on the said Agnes Paterson her half of the Twenty
penny Land, Whereupon
‘tis said he was Infeft but the Infeftment does not appear.
Henry Ritchmond obtains Dec’t of Adjudication before the
Lords against said Agnes Paterson & John Lindsay founded on a Dec’t
before the said Lords 15th Jan’ry 1761 at Henry’s instance against
them & Janet Lindsay Daughter of the deceast W’m Lindsay
Shoemaker in Mauchline
for pay[men]t of the sums in the said Bonds accumulated at the date of the
adjudication, to the sum of one Thousand Six hundred and Seventy nine pounds
Eight Shillings Scots.
Henry Ritchmond obtains Dec[re]t of Adjudication before the
Lords ag[ains]t said Janet Lindsay as charged to enter heir in Special in
her father of the half of the said Twenty
penny land for pay[men]t of
the several sums therein mentioned due by ther father Extending at the rathe of
the Dec[re]t of adjudication to Seven hundred and Twelve pound Eight shillings
Scots, and for the Contents of the Said heretable Bond of Corroberation
extending to One Thousand three hundred and fourty pounds Scots
From the above State of the Matter, it appears that David Brunton
in his Wife’s disposition being a Latent Deed will not be good to Compete with
an Onerous Creditor.
That Janet Lindsay would have Right to one half of the Twenty
penny Land and Ann Lindsay & David
Brunton to the other half, but then Janet Lindsay is a Minor.
It is said that Henry Ritchmond has sundry intromitions with the
Rents &c. and that there are various objections to the Grounds of Debt and
procedure which will oppen the Adjudications and reduce them to security for the
principal and @ rents, did not Janet Lindsay’s Minority Stand in the
way; its thought as they are not able themselves to Redeem that Agnes
Paterson and her Daughter & Son in Law & Janet Lindsay
herebye Should Dispone the whole Twenty
penny Land to some friend under Backbond
who should in their Name Raise a Reduction of the adjudication and how soon they
are reduced to securities for the prin[cipa]l and @ rent, the whole should be
Grouped together and the price applied in the first place in pay[men]t of what
shall be justly found due to Henry Ritchmond and the next place for
Defrying the Expence of the Pro [hole] s and the Residue be divided amongst
[Presumably “@ rents” abbreviates “accrued rents”.]
Hendry Richmond agt David Brunton 1787
11 3/4” x 7 3/4”
(apparently about 1” has been sliced off top)
[descenders of the line above
the present one cannot be analysed]
Wallace Sheriff officer by virtue of a decreet of removing obtained upon the
twenty third day of July one Thousand seven hundred and sixty five years before
William Loagan of Castalmains
Sheriff substitute of the
Sheir of Ayr
at the pretence of Hendrey Richmont merchant in Mawchline
Heratible Propretore and standing posest in all and hail the twenty penney lands
of old extent of Mawchline
and *laying within the territory of Mawchline*
[marginal addition, initialled by George Wallace] in
Parish thereof conform to a charter of a judication of the date, the
seventeenth day of December on thows and seven hundred and sixty four years
granted by the Earl of Lowdoun superior thereof to the said Hendry
Richmont parischoner and ane presentment (?) of seasing taken thereupon in
the presence of the Duke the sixteenth and registrate in the particular register
of sesing thereof for the shire of Ayr the Eighteen day of March one Thowsand
seven hundred and sixty four years against David Brunton shewmaker in Mawchline.
Therefor in his singylys name and authority and executive of the said
decreet of Removing I hereby command and charge you the said David Brunton
instantly to flet and remove your self family servants subtenants coalurs goods
and gear furth and from your posheson of the half of the said twenty penny lands
of Mawchline howses
yeards and huall pertenents therof and to leave the same void and re[stor]ed and
patent to the effect the said Hendry Richmont may then enter therto
posess labour sit dispoas therupon therafter conform to his reight therto with
Certificasion as Effi[de]ns ship of deliver to you upon the twenty third day of
September one thousand seven hundred and sixty five years, befoar thes witness, John
Peden in Townhead of
Mawchline and John
Wilson witnesses. George
with caption, “Charge of Horning for David Burton 1765”
Paper 7 1/4”
x 11 1/2” written one side. There is no title nor preliminary on the sheet of text.
I John Lamb messenger by virtue of Letters of Horning
raised at the instance of Henery Richmond, Merchant in Mawchline in his
magistrayt’s name [last four words dim because ink worn off at fold here]
and alhanly [= allanerly?] comand and charge you, David Brunton
Shawmaker in Mawchline,
to make payment to the Complainer of the sume of Two hundered and thirty eight
pounds Scots as the Rent of your posession of the Twenty
penny Land of old extent of Mauchline
and howses yards and pertinents and that from the sixth of February, 1700 and
fifty nine to the term of Whitsunday, 1700 and sixty three years, being at the
rate of fifty six pounds Scots yearly and compounds [unclear abbreviation] of
the sume of one hundred and forty pounds Scots as two years and a half Rent of
your said possession of the said land and houses and that from Whitsunday 1700
and sixty three to Martinmas last 1700 and sixty five years, deducting seventy
eight pound eighteen shilling and eight pennies Scots by goods provided within
these two years and nine pound fifteen shillings sterling by a Decreas of feus
for the assesing and also to uphold the said howses during your possession, All
contained in and due by a decreet obtained at the complainers instance against
you before the sherriff Deput of Ayr, Dated the Thirteenth of September 1700 and
sixty three years, and that within fifteen days after this my charge under the
pain of Rebellion and putting of you to the horn, Conform to the said letters of
horning dated and signed the twenty seventh Day of November last.
This I do upon the twenty eight day of December, 1700 and sixty five
years, before this next session.
Gibson, officer in Mauchline
and John Peden, Indweller in Mauchline.
John Lamb, messenger.
There follows overleaf a barely legible balance sheet.
is an old Scots punishment. After
three blasts of a horn at the market cross of a town, the name of a contumacious
person would be announced, with attendent scandal, loss of credit, and loss of
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